Typojanchi 2023: International Typography Biennale—Open Quotation Marks, Close Quotation Marks focuses on typography that connects letters and sounds, sight and sound, objects and bodies, and sparks experimentation and practice.

Open Quotation Marks, Close Quotation Marks addresses linguistic interstices, such as the collision, erasure, and creation of spoken and written language in the context of identity and power.

Open Quotation Marks, Close Quotation Marks cross-translates or intersects vision and hearing to reveal the different senses' differences.

Open Quotation Marks, Close Quotation Marks finds the rhythm of letters and sounds in repetition, change, and dissonance, and recalls the labor and craft behind them.

Open Quotation Marks, Close Quotation Marks responds to a digital chord, or dissonance, that utilizes technology and media to disrupt linear order.

Open Quotation Marks, Close Quotation Marks finds spontaneity and serendipity in sound and movement outside of visual symbols, and shares the vitality of typography that oscillates between objects and bodies.

Artistic Director
PARK Yeounjoo

JEON Yuni, SHIN Haeok, and YEO Hyejin

The phrases “open quotation marks” and “close quotation marks” in the exhibition title are extracted from Theresa Hak Kyung Cha’s DICTEE. The title alludes to the sounds we are about to hear and the traces of the letters we have read.

전시를 열며

타이포잔치 2023 국제 타이포그래피 비엔날레 《따옴표 열고 따옴표 닫고》는 문자와 소리, 시각과 청각, 사물과 신체를 연결하고 실험과 실천을 촉발하는 타이포그래피에 주목합니다.

《따옴표 열고 따옴표 닫고》는 정체성과 권력의 맥락에서 음성 언어와 문자 언어의 충돌, 소거, 생성과 같은 언어의 틈새를 다룹니다.

《따옴표 열고 따옴표 닫고》는 시각과 청각을 상호 번역하거나 교차시켜 서로 다른 감각이 만드는 차이를 드러냅니다.

《따옴표 열고 따옴표 닫고》는 반복과 변화, 어긋남에서 문자와 소리에 담긴 리듬을 찾고 그 바탕에 자리한 노동과 공예성을 환기합니다.

《따옴표 열고 따옴표 닫고》는 기술과 매체를 활용해 선형적 질서를 뒤섞는 디지털 화음 또는 불협화음에 호응합니다.

《따옴표 열고 따옴표 닫고》는 시각 기호를 벗어난 구음과 움직임에서 즉흥성과 우연을 발견하고, 사물과 신체 사이에서 진동하는 타이포그래피의 활기를 나눕니다.

예술 감독

신해옥, 여혜진, 전유니

전시 제목에 쓴 “따옴표 열고” “따옴표 닫고”는 테레사 학경 차의 『딕테』(1982)에서 각각 인용, 번역했습니다. 이 제목은 곧 들려올 소리를 암시하고 읽힌 문자의 흔적을 내포합니다.



Artist: SOHN Youngeun Date: September 20 (Wed.), 2:00 p.m.
September 23 (Sat.), 2:00 p.m.
Venue: Culture Station Seoul 284 / Grill (2F) Content: A recitation performance using a large scroll measuring one meter in width and 100 meters in length as its script.

Performance—Blackboard Scribophone

Artist: YANG Yu-Chiao Date: September 20 (Wed.), 4:00 p.m.
September 23 (Sat.), 4:00 p.m.
Venue: Culture Station Seoul 284 / Meeting Room (2F) Content: A unique oral impromptu performance that blends writing actions, verbal commentary expressions, and blackboard drawings from Taiwanese and Korean folktales.


Artist: Herdimas ANGGARA Date: September 24 (Sun), 6:30 p.m.
October 7 (Sat), 6:30 p.m.
October 8 (Sun), 6:30 p.m.
Venue: Culture Station Seoul 284 / The 3rd Class Waiting Room (1F) Content: This live performance, streamed in real-time into the exhibition space, provides a glimpse into the artist's computer as it simulates hacks and errors, inviting contemplation on the experience of utilizing digital tools without constraints.

Workshop—Alt Text Workshop

*Pre-registration begins on October 1st on the Typojanchi website.

Artist: After New Order Date: October 6 (Fri), 11:00 a.m.-12:30 p.m.
October 6 (Fri), 2:00 p.m.-3:30 p.m.
Venue: Culture Station Seoul 284 RTO Content: This program highlights the importance of ‘alternative texts,’ often overlooked in the interface for non-disabled web users. It encourages participants to create their own alternative texts.

Conversation—The Third Thing

*Pre-registration begins on October 1st on the Typojanchi website.

Artist: KIM Nuiyeon & JEON Yongwan Date: October 6 (Fri), 5:00 p.m. Venue: Culture Station Seoul 284 RTO Content: A discussion with the audience about The Third Thing (2023), a work that explores, revises, and reimagines Theresa Hak Kyung Cha’s DICTEE (1982).

Lecture—Studies in Gray

*Pre-registration begins on October 1st on the Typojanchi website.

Artist: LEE Hanbum Date: October 13 (Fri), 5:00 p.m. Venue: Culture Station Seoul 284 RTO Content: A lecture performance presenting the results of a research project that connects typography and sound, using the color gray as its framework.

Pop-up Bookstore—The Book Society

Content: The Book Society operates a pop-up bookstore in the first-floor corridor during the exhibition. You’ll find over 70 books, including collections of works by participating artists, books selected by The Book Society to align with the exhibition theme, and the 50th issue of GRAPHICS, released in conjunction with the opening of Typojanchi 2023.

Sponsor Exhibition—Woowa Brothers Corp., Baemin Geullim Baeksubaekbokdo

Content: Woowa Brothers Corp., one of the Typojanchi 2023 sponsors, presents “Baemin Geullim Baeksubaekbokdo,” an embroidered work with 100 “sue (수)” characters symbolizing longevity and 100 “bok (복)” characters symbolizing happiness in the first-floor corridor during the exhibition.



작가: 손영은 일시: 1회. 9월 20일 (수) 오후 2시
2회. 9월 23일 (토) 오후 2시
장소: 문화역서울284 / 2층 그릴 내용: 폭 1미터, 길이 100미터의 대형 두루마리를 대본으로 하는 낭독 공연.

공연—칠판 스크리보폰

작가: 양위차오 일시: 1회. 9월 20일 (수) 오후 4시
2회. 9월 23일 (토) 오후 4시
장소: 문화역서울284 / 2층 회의실 내용: 대만과 한국의 민담을 바탕으로 쓰기 동작과 구전 해설, 칠판 표현을 합친 구술 즉흥 공연.


작가: 헤르디마스 앙가라 일시: 1회. 9월 24일 (일) 오후 6시 30분
2회. 10월 7일 (토) 오후 6시 30분
3회. 10월 8일 (일) 오후 6시 30분
장소: 문화역서울284 / 1층 3등 대합실 내용: 익숙한 디지털 환경을 작가의 데스크톱에 재현한 후 해킹하거나 작동 오류를 일으키며 자유로운 사용자 경험을 유도하는 실시간 스트리밍 현장 공연.

워크숍—대체 텍스트 워크숍

*10월 1일부터 타이포잔치 2023 홈페이지에서 사전 예약 접수

작가: 새로운 질서 그 후 일시: 1회. 10월 6일 (금) 오전 11시-12시 30분
2회. 10월 6일 (금) 오후 2시-3시 30분
장소: 문화역서울284 RTO 내용: 비장애인의 웹 사용자 환경에서 시각적으로 드러나지 않는 대체 텍스트를 직접 작성하며 그 역할과 필요성을 공유하는 워크숍.


*10월 1일부터 타이포잔치 2023 홈페이지에서 사전 예약 접수

작가: 김뉘연·전용완 일시: 10월 6일 (금) 오후 5시 장소: 문화역서울284 RTO 내용: 테레사 학경 차의 『딕테』를 이어 쓰고, 다시 쓰고, 다르게 쓴 『제3작품집』에 관한 관람객과의 대화.

강연—회색 연구

*10월 1일부터 타이포잔치 2023 홈페이지에서 사전 예약 접수

작가: 이한범 일시: 10월 13일 (금) 오후 5시 장소: 문화역서울284 RTO 내용: 회색을 프로토콜 삼아 활자 영역과 소리 영역을 교차시킨 리서치 결과물을 공유하는 ‘렉처 퍼포먼스’.

팝업 서점—더 북 소사이어티

내용: 전시 기간 동안 1층 복도에서 더 북 소사이어티가 팝업 서점을 운영합니다. 참여 작가들의 작품집, 더 북 소사이어티가 전시 주제에 맞춰 추천하는 도서들, 타이포잔치 2023 개막과 함께 발행된 『그래픽』 50호 등 70여 권의 책이 준비되어 있습니다.

후원사 전시—우아한형제들

내용: 타이포잔치 2023 후원사인 우아한형제들이 전시장 1층 복도에서 장수를 상징하는 100개의 ‘수’와 만복을 상징하는 100개의 ‘복’자를 글림체로 수놓은 작품 〈배민 글림체 백수백복도〉를 선보입니다.


Typojanchi 2023:
International Typography Biennale—
Open Quotation Marks,
Close Quotation Marks

Open Quotation Marks, Close Quotation Marks
September 19 (Tue.)–October 14 (Sat.), 2023
Culture Station Seoul 284

artistic director
PARK Yeounjoo

JEON Yuni, SHIN Haeok, and YEO Hyejin

associate curator
Julie KIM

LEE Juhyun

space design, furniture design, and installation
In-between Space Works (KIM Guntae, MIN Dukki, and JANG Kiwuk)

installation assistants
CHOI Inhye, GIL Ahroom, HEO Nagyeong, KANG Hyegyeong, KIM Bokyoung, KIM Byeong Gu, KIM Joonhyung, KIM Kwangcheol, KIM Miso, LEE Beomhang, LEE Youngseok, NA Heewon, PARK Seojin, and RIM Yechan

exhibition identity

catalog, website, and booklet editing
JEON Yuni, LEE Juhyun, and LEE Jeongsin

catalog, website, and booklet design

Seoul Reading Room (Jaeyong PARK)

website development
MOON Jungju

subtitles and motion design
Wau Mountain Guardian

photography and video

media technology

transport and art handling
Solomon Art

Saeroum i


hosted by
Ministry of Culture, Sports and Tourism

organized by
Korea Craft & Design Foundation
Organizing Committee of International Typography Biennale

in cooperation with
National Hangeul Museum
Korean Society of Typography

organizing committee
YU Jeongmi, JANG Dongkwang, KIM Young-soo, KIM Hongpil, CHOI Sulki, AHN Byunghak, LEE Jaemin, KIM Kwangchul

administration office
RYU Youngmi, LEE Hongkyu, HWANG Dongho

project cooperations
GRAPHIC, Korean Film Archive, JEONJU International Film Festival

Doosung Paper, Creative Industries Fund NL, Woowa Brothers Corp., Embassy of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, Ahn Graphics, The Japan Foundation, Seoul, National Culture and Arts Foundation

media sponsors
NAVER, Monthly Design, BeAttitude

1 Dun LEE

“(Inhale to start speech) This work observes human conversation from two directions: ‘the space between words and speech’ and ‘non-verbal sounds.’ The margin of speech is about the form in which punctuation marks remain in a conversation. When we speak, we don’t pronounce punctuation marks in sentences, like ‘How are you a question mark, ‘Well, yes I’m fine period,’ or ‘Oh my god exclamation mark exclamation mark.’ Since punctuation marks themselves are designed to express the characteristics of oral language, such as speech flow and intonation, their role is usually lost when letters become sounds.

Interestingly, these punctuation marks sometimes survive and create a space between words. For example, people who speak English as a second language often replace punctuation marks with certain words in the process of translating original sentences into English in their minds. A Japanese person Y says ‘something like that’ at the end of every sentence. For Y, this expression works like a period. The phrase ‘let’s say’ appears very often in Dutch person A’s speech. To him, it’s a comma, a habitual conjunction he uses when pausing to think about his following sentence.

Any Verbal Habit That Is Non-essential to One’s Meaning examines how punctuation fills the margins of conversation and explores the different modes of existence of the margins of speech: static, silence, air, waiting, and echo.

The work also features a painting by Joseph Severn that depicts the English romantic poet John Keats listening to a nightingale sing. It focuses on non-verbal sounds, i.e., sounds that have no meaning or have meaning removed from speech, and examines how they stimulate other senses, highlighting the presence of soundlessness in the presence of sound. I want the viewer to experience the spatiality, weight, texture, and stimulation of the sound of the mouth and the breath through the eyes of John Keats. (Exhale to end speech)”

Any Verbal Habit That Is Non-essential to One’s Meaning
single-channel video, color, sound, 3 min. 7 sec.
born in Seoul, South Korea / based in Amsterdam, Netherlands

Dun Lee is interested in methodologies that use graphic design as a tool for thinking and inquiry. For Lee, graphic design is a tool for thinking, combining existing concepts to propose new definitions and find unexpected possibilities. Lee also considers graphic design as a tool for exploration, observing our attitudes toward language and how we use it by paying attention to how people speak, listen, write, and read.

2 JO Hyojoon

Letters: 쏐뽙힗 is a recomposition of the artist’s 2022 work Letters, recreated in accordance with the theme of Typojanchi 2023. The work is created using the variable font Fighting, which is designed by the artist. The font is composed of three axes (thickness, width, and slope), enabling its users to set parameters between 10 and 100 pixels in thickness, 1000 and 2000 pixels in width, and -45 to 45 degrees in slope. Letters: 쏐뽙힗 is an installation that allows the audience to move the control device to adjust the three axes of the font Fighting, transforming the letters displayed on the screen into the desired shape.

The characters used by the artist in the work are syllables that don’t come easily to mind for pronunciation, taken from the list of syllables (8,392) that have been removed from the list of “Adobe-KR-9 Character Collection, Supplement 0,” which is the international standard for Hangul fonts established by Adobe in collaboration with Sandol Communication. In other words, these are the syllables missing from the 2,780 choices recommended for designing Hangul fonts out of the 11,172 syllables that can be made with Hangul alphabet combinations. As a result, unfamiliar combinations of consonants like “쏐,” “뽙,” “힗,” “깶,” “롷,” “돾,” “삌,” and “쑟” are rarely seen, let alone pronounced. The artist invites the audience to use a control device to change the thickness, width, and slope of these unfamiliar characters, experiencing synesthesia in which the nuances of sound change depending on the shape of the letters, and to imagine the sounds of characters that modern Hangul does not call out.

Fighting was first shown as part of a lettering work titled Sajangnim Fighting at Typojanchi 2015, in which Jo participated as a member of Corners. It will be released as a commercial font in late 2023.

Letters: 쏐뽙힗
interactive installation, interactive software with variable font, MIDI controller, monitor, installation approx. 170 × 123 × 98 cm

Collaboration with
Jeonghyo (interactive media development)
JO Hyojoon
born in Gwacheon, South Korea / based in Seoul, South Korea

Jo Hyojoon has been running a design studio and risography printing house Corners in Seoul with Kim Daewoong since 2012. Jo studied graphic communication design at Central Saint Martins and received a master’s degree in visual design from the University of Seoul. With an interest in turning ideas into something that can be used in the real world, he combines his graphic design work with risography printing workshops, doing all the steps from planning to design to production all by himself.

3 YANG Euddeum

Lecture Design takes its motif from Korean subtitle errors found in design lectures by English-speaking speakers on YouTube when translated using the automatic translation feature. Automatic translation often produces mistranslations due to word order differences between the two languages or the double entendres of words. At first glance, the mistranslated sentences seem like inspirational aphorisms or manifestos.

Lecture Design consists of a lecture video that collects and reconstructs mistranslated Korean subtitles and a book of the same name. Using the unexpected context and odd nuances created by automatic translation as a creative tool, Yang presents the designer's attitude and the world surrounding the design through a gaze open to errors. In addition, she experiments with language as a material to explore the creative environment that has changed with the advent of artificial intelligence in converting sound into text and text into sound and image, exploring its possibilities and limitations.

Lecture Design
single-channel video, color, sound, 7 min. 1 sec., book (YANG, E., Lecture Design, 2023, offset print on paper, perfect binding, 14.8 × 10.5 cm, 192 pages)

Collaboration with
YouTube automatic captions (script English-Korean translation), Papago and Google translate (script Korean-English Translation), DALL·E 2 (script image generation and video opening title design), Adobe Photoshop beta (script image enhancement), Midjourney (video opening image generation), Papago (voice), and Uljiro KIM (video design)
YANG Euddeum
born in Jeju, South Korea / based in Seoul, South Korea

Yang Euddeum is a graphic designer based in Seoul. She loves East Asian modern and contemporary daily life, pop culture, and subcultures, and enjoys wearing intricately patterned clothes and designing with simple logic and form. She acquired her master’s degree with a thesis on the relationship between graphic design and comedy, and built her professional experience at a design studio Workroom. She runs her own design studio, KWACHING, and teaches at the University of Seoul.

4 After New Order

After New Order proposes to create alt text for all images to be published on the Typojanchi 2023 website and implement it on the website. Alt text describes an image online and is used to help visually impaired people who use screen readers understand images online. Because alt text is not visually present in user interfaces experienced by people without impairments, it is difficult to recognize its role or need, which is why it is often overlooked when developing websites.

Through the process of converting images into text and text into sound, Listening to Images reminds us of the existence of users who experience the web with senses other than sight, and asks whether today’s web is an equal space for all.

[ Research Lab ] ↗

Listening to Images
website, alt text for all images to be published on the Typojanchi 2023 website
After New Order
YOON Choong-geun and LEE Jisuborn in Seoul, South Korea / based in Seoul, South Korea
LEE Sohyeonborn in Seoul, South Korea / based in Leipzig, Germany

After New Order is a collective of practices exploring what is happening on today's web, emphasizing the web's fundamental ethos of openness, sharing, and participation. They are interested in user agency, web accessibility, and platforms and present their questions and practices through websites, installations, workshops, and publications. They have created the “Alt MMCA” by writing alt texts for all the images of the National Museum of Modern and Contemporary Art's collections (7,585 items as of 2021). They also operate the “Alt Museum,” which presents open-access images of domestic and international museum collections with alt texts.


“I like Tan Lin’s concept of ‘ambient literature,’ which treats literature almost as’ wallpaper’ and privileges the shallow read of temporary daily ephemera rather than the ‘close read’ typically emphasized, especially in academic settings. I was interested in what happened when the texts I received from contributors were arranged ‘out of order’ or presented in multiple different ways at the same time. The emphasis shifts from reading the text to gain some specific predetermined meaning to gleaning a more generalized and varied aesthetic sense of the text.”

Reading Machines, which rearranges contributed texts to create new meanings, and I Never Want to See the Same Image Twice, a series of eighteen websites that experiment with web-specific reading formats, are both web platforms that encourage “non-teleological reading.” Inspired by experimental literature* that pushes the formal boundaries of the novel, Tiger Dingsun brings the web to life and takes full advantage of the affordances of the web environment to propose an unfamiliar way of reading that is non-linear, dynamic, interactive, and impossible to achieve in print media.

Dingsun attributes the background of this work to “differences in spatial metaphors across languages. For example, the Chinese think of time as ‘up and down’ in space. The past is up and the future is down. In English, on the other hand, the past is put at the back and the future at the front. There are many ways to arrange words or concepts in space; even the most ‘natural’ spatial arrangements can be relative to culture.”

Tiger Dingsun’s web-based non-teleological reading explores the nature of reading by attending to multiplicity, contradiction, and arbitrariness. It resists typography or graphic design’s function as a tool of a regime that demands a smooth, holistic, and singular interpretation.

House of Leaves by Mark Z. Danielewski, Hopscotch by Julio Cortázar, DICTEE by Theresa Hak Kyung Cha, and especially works by Tan Lin such as Blipsoak_01 and Seven Controlled Vocabularies.
Reading Machines
interactive software, sound

S.B., Silas CHEN, Libby MARRS, Theia FLYNN, Jorge PALACIOS, Liby HAYS, Greta HUANG SKAGERLIND, Justine NGUYEN-NGUYEN, Danning NIU, Ali DIPP, Aayushi KHOWALA, Wen ZHUANG, Emma KEMP, Paul BOUIGUE, Zainab ALLYU, Hannah JOYCE, and Lara KALECIK


I Never Want to See the Same Image Twice
series of eighteen websites
born in Bangor, USA / based in New York City, USA

Tiger Dingsun is a software engineer, graphic designer, and TikTok theorist. Dingsun studied computer science at Brown University and graphic design at the Rhode Island College of Design. His creative practice primarily explores language at the intersection of poetry literature, web technology, and digital media culture, and he consistently shares his personal and participatory work on his website.


“An LED screen is an advertisement—a media display invented for its needs and completely subordinated to it, associated with invasive persuasion call-to-action: buy, see, call. We are doomed to advertising and are used to its forms of presentation, aggressive language, and communication speed. What if someone used this medium to share pro-social ideas?”

To put this idea into action, Ksawery Kirklewski convinced the owners of several LED billboards in the center of Gdańsk, Poland, to broadcast the non-commercial animation 17,000 times on five large screens. The same artwork was then played on displays on 170 city buses.

In this exhibition, the artist reorganizes existing works and adds new ones to present Banners on three screens. Eleven animations are shown, including a slow dilated pupil, a letter jumping across the screen, a flashing “NEED TO HAVE,” a moving hourglass, a second-hand clock, and the writing of the Latin alphabet. These animations do not contain sound, but they evoke a sense of empathy, emphasizing the artist’s intention through visual elements that stimulate the auditory imagination: segmentation, repetition, and movement.

three-channel video, black and white, silent, set of eleven animations, 22 min. 47 sec., looped
born in Gdańsk, Poland / based in Gdańsk, Poland

Ksawery Kirklewski is a creative coding artist. Graduate of the Graphic Department of the Academy of Fine Arts in Gdańsk. His diploma, “Exhibition of Banners” (2015), received the Minister of Culture Award for “Best Diplomas of Polish Academies of Fine Arts” in 2015. Author of interactive installations, generative animations, music videos, phygital sculptures, and realizations in public space. He uses new technologies, programming, advertising media, and TV equipment, focusing mostly on the generative and net art field. His most recent projects include: interactive light installations “FLUX” (Miami Art Week, Miami, 2023), “ENTER 2023” (Khroma Museum, Berlin, 2023), “ENTER 2022”(commissioned by Nxt Museum, Amsterdam, 2022), a generative music website “Symphony in Acid” in collaboration with Max Cooper, and series of phygital sculptures “CTRL_DAT” (commissioned by Kate Vass Galerie, Zurich, 2022).

7 LEE Soosung

“The profession of voice actor is often described as a job of making ‘a thousand voices.’ But in reality, there are only so many voices a single voice actor can do, and you can count them with your fingers. However, I try to capture the personality of each character in my voice by varying the breathing, speech patterns, intonation, facial expressions, mouth size, etc., according to their age, personality, physical condition, and emotions.”

100 Posters 100 Voices is a work that gives voice to 100 posters from the 24th Jeonju International Film Festival’s poster exhibition project 100 Films 100 Posters. Lee Soosung considers the work of a voice actor to be “painting a picture in the listener’s mind, lifting up a flat piece of type and making it come alive.” In this work, he uses poster design as his script. The artist intuitively grasps the film's mood from the various visual elements that the designer used in the poster, such as the typeface, photography, color, and typesetting characteristics. He reflects on this by reciting a hundred movie titles to embody the audibility of the visual image through his voice.

100 Posters 100 Voices
single-channel video, color, sound, 33 min. 20 sec.

100 designers participating in 100 Films 100 Posters
Project Cooperation
This work was conceived as a joint project between Typojanchi 2023 and 100 Films 100 Posters, with support from the Jeonju International Film Festival.

“100 Films 100 Posters”
hosted by JEONJU International Film Festival
organized by GRAPHIC
curated by FORMULA (CHAE Heejoon and SYN Gunmo)
LEE Soosung
born in Seongnam, South Korea / based in Seoul, South Korea

Lee Soosung dreamed of becoming a voice actor or animation artist when he watched anime in middle school. In college, he studied painting and creating installations and sculptures while working as a space designer. Now in his mid-thirties, he is training himself to fulfill the dream of becoming a voice actor once again.

8 LEE Yunjung

Tongue Gymnastics experiments with the process of transforming physical movement into art by building choreographic skills with the movement of the tongue and tongue roots, focusing on the tongue as an object that has been missing from the history and context of dance. The work in the exhibition is a video version of LEE’s performance, Tongue Gymnastics, which premiered in 2019. The structure of the work is identical to its performance version.

The video starts with the tongue moving slowly, followed by facial muscles, and then the entire body, demonstrating the mobility of the tongue as a bodily organ and suggesting that the muscles of the tongue are connected to the muscles of the entire body. In this work, the movement of the tongue, described as “gymnastics,” follows a score composed by the artist. It lists everything from nonsensical syllable combinations like “babibubbe/babibubbe” and “sasisuse/sasisuse” to foreign language pronunciations like “contunfhung” and “tequila.” However, the letters here act solely as visual symbols to direct the movement of the tongue, and their meaning is not important.

The work deconstructs the conventional symbols and interpretations attached to the tongue, presenting the tongue as a muscular sensory organ and a speech organ that produces language. As such, Lee Yunjung replaces the movement of the tongue and tongue root with a score for the body, producing individual images from the materiality of the tongue. From this, she suggests another possibility of dance using the body as a medium.

Tongue Gymnastics
single-channel video, color, sound, 20 min. 2 sec.

Sponsored by
LEE Yunjung
born in Incheon, South Korea / based in Seoul, South Korea

Lee Yunjung is a choreographer. Her creative practice in dance, choreography, performance, arts education, and “somatic” practice explores the potential of the body at the intersection of society and art, and investigates ways of choreographing for the resonance and symbiosis of minority and marginalized bodies. Her major works include “Tongue Gymnastics” (Seoul Foundation for Arts and Culture/Theatre Sinchon/Daelim Museum, Seoul, 2019-2022), “Visceral Vibration” (Korea National Contemporary Dance Company, Seoul, 2021), “Simultaneous” at an exhibition Pass, Kick, Fall and Run (Art Sonje Center, Seoul, 2020), “1 and 4, Again” (Platform-L, Seoul, 2018), “Between Spot and Spine” (Nam June Paik Art Center, Yongin, 2018), and the collaborative work “HAAP HUUP HHHP I’MOK” (Wooran Foundation, Seoul, 2021).


transCRIPted is an online performance where JJJJJerome Ellis plays a recording of his voice at a reading event in 2020 and types his speech sounds in real-time, including his stuttering, on a notepad application. In this work, the artist marks the discontinuity in sound that occurs when a person stutters by repeating words instead of placing ellipses or spaces, revealing its difference from silence and closely linking the visual and auditory qualities of the letters.

Ellis’s stuttering does not come in the form of repeating syllables but rather a glottal block in which the sound of the consonant “g” sticks in the throat and does not meet the vowel “a” when pronouncing “ga.” He once observed his vocal cords through a laryngoscope in an otorhinolaryngology clinic. This experience gave him a clear picture of what was going on inside him when he stuttered—when his mouth was open, but no sound was coming out.

“When I was speaking, the vocal cords would meet and vibrate. When I wasn’t speaking, they would be separated. When I would stutter, I saw them halfway in between. They were vibrating and trying [clearing] to meet, and when they met, that was when I spoke. I saw that the stutter lives in between fluent speech and not speaking at all.”*

The one word Ellis stutters the most is his own name. Stuttering is often read as silence or evasiveness by the interlocutor. If someone stutters at the beginning of a phone call, the call is cut off before the first word is spoken, and if they stutter on a video call, it seems as if the screen is frozen or there is a problem with the internet connection. If the person at the other end is a police officer, things can get serious. A black man who appears to be silent in response to a question is misinterpreted as suspicious or threatening.

But in all of those moments, JJJJJerome Ellis is talking. “Just the sound has not arrived yet”** at a timing expected by the world that speaks smoothly and fluently. The artist often compares it to a river that meanders underground and then rises to the surface, flowing unseen and uninterrupted. He embraces this unpredictable, uncontrollable, unchosen disfluency as “a form of critique and embodied critique.”*** In this context, transCRIPted is both a speech about and a resistance to the disadvantages imposed by the fluency regime on the different timing of sounds. And at the same time, it is a poetic performance that reveals moments when the linear temporal order of capitalism does not function. JJJJJerome Ellis’s speaking lives outside the conventions of time·speech·sound, between speech and silence.

Sonic Insurgency Research Group. “Conversations on sound and power: JJJJJerome Ellis.” March, December 2021, Accessed 21 June 2023.

Kim, Christine Sun, et al. “Reading Sound and Embodying Language.” YouTube, Haus der Kunst, 5 September 2022, Accessed 21 June 2023.

Kuzma, Marta, et al. “JJJJJerome Ellis: On Fugitive Speech.” YouTube, Yale School of Art, 12 December 2020, Accessed 21 June 2023.
single-channel video, color, sound, 10 min. 20 sec.

Commissioned by
The Poetry Project, New York City
born in Groton, CT, USA / based in Norfolk, VA, USA

JJJJJerome Ellis is a composer, producer, instrumentalist, and writer. He explores the relationship between blackness, speech impairment, sound, and time through music, literature, performance, video, and photography. He studied music theory and ethnomusicology at Columbia University and studied samba in Salvador on a Fulbright research grant (2015). He taught sound design at Yale University and has performed at Lincoln Center, The Poetry Project, the Metropolitan Museum of Art, Venice Biennale 2023, and Haus der Kunst in Munich, Germany. In 2021, his debut album and book, The Clearing, won the Anna Rabinowitz Prize (2022) from the Poetry Society of America.

10 ​​Nat PYPER

Trust Fall Into the Gap is a video work by Nat Pyper, who was born and raised in the United States but is also familiar with their mother’s language, Portuguese, which they learned naturally as a child. The work is an attempt to bridge the gap between the two languages and an exercise in speaking. They use the rhythm of the alphabet’s vowels, which are not written but create auditory rhymes and sometimes semantic differences, to describe what it feels like to be unable to recall one’s native language.

“I use language as a sieve, and I push the body through it.”*

In this piece, where time is the main component, a figure experiences the sensation of forgetting the mother tongue (which their mother never formally taught them) and falling into the gap between language and body, past and future, meaning and feeling, English and Portuguese.

“Breakout Artists 2021: Chicago’s Next Generation of Image Makers.” Newcity Art, March 2021, Accessed 21 August 2023.
Trust Fall Into the Gap
single-channel video, color, sound, 1 min. 50 sec.

Collaboration with
Ang ZHENG (camera work and lighting)
born in Rockford, USA / based in Brooklyn, USA

Nat Pyper researches the history of queer publications, which they use to create fonts, wearable pieces, videos, and performances. They’ve performed at the Poetry Foundation in Chicago, Cooper Cole in Toronto, and the PAGEANT in Brooklyn, and exhibited at the Museum für Gestaltung Zürich, Vox Populi in Philadelphia, and Printed Matter in New York. Their work has appeared in print from publishers Draw Down Books, Inga Books, Martian Press, Genderfail, and Queer.Archive.Work. They’ve also contributed to the Walker Art Center’s online platform. They hold an MFA in graphic design from Yale School of Art.

11 lucky dragons

This video, visionreport, demonstrates sound transcription as a visual report. Hands sketch quick graphic notation alongside computer-generated patterns to link the action of listening with the act of seeing.

A handheld pen sketches lines in white across a black background, coinciding with short bursts of synthesized sound. The lines bend and waver at curves and angles, rising and falling to meet the modulating sound.

These free-hand, ambiguous shapes may resemble letters or numbers or be intuited as either the cause or effect of the sound. Each drawn figure is analyzed while in the process of being drawn. Probable future routes, indicated by fine, branching lines that proliferate where the lines end, render the set of all recognizable forms that each shape’s particular ambiguity might allow. When the pen lifts, predictions continue—lines spread, curve, and overlap, reaching to suggest a new course.

In this technique for the interplay of direct and computer-aided sensation, the distinction between translation and interpretation is made ambiguous, flickering between human and algorithmic observation. Recognizing, modeling, and predicting are viewed as musical forms.

single-channel video, color, sound, 9 min. 34 sec.
lucky dragons
formed in 1999 / based in Los Angeles, USA

An ongoing collaboration between Los Angeles-based artists Sarah Rara and Luke Fischbeck, lucky dragons research forms of participation and dissent, purposefully working towards a better understanding of existing ecologies through performances, publications, recordings, and public art. They have presented collaborative work in a wide variety of contexts, including REDCAT, LACMA, MOCA, the Hammer Museum in Los Angeles, the Centre Georges Pompidou Paris in Paris, the Walker Art Center in Minneapolis, the Institute for Contemporary Art in London, The Kitchen in New York, the 54th Venice Biennale, Documenta 14, the Whitney Museum of American Art (as part of the 2008 Whitney Biennial), the Smithsonian’s Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, and among others. The name “lucky dragons” is borrowed from a fishing vessel caught in the fallout from H-bomb tests in the mid-1950s, an incident that sparked an international outcry and gave birth to the worldwide anti-nuclear movement.

12 Herdimas ANGGARA

“RASUK embOdies the essence Of spirit pOssessiOn, exerting its influence. Over the cOurse Of the past twO years, I have delved deep intO the realm Of live ZOOm desktOp perfOrmances, manipulating and cOnjuring fOrth digital vernaculars. In this prOcess, I twist and distOrt the very fabric Of standard business platfOrms/applicatiOns (GOOgle DOcs and GOOgle Spreadsheet amOng Others), unraveling the threads Of familiarity and shattering precOnceived ideOlOgies embedded within each system. What if, within these ethereal realms, religiOus ecstasy reverberates and resOnates? What if these cOrpOreal pOssessiOns transmute Our perceptiOns Of symbOlic cOnventiOns, such as the user interface? HOw can we fathOm Our true sense Of agency as we navigate these seemingly mundane machines?”

RASUK is a real-time performance transmitted three times to the exhibition space via Zoom during the exhibition period. Dubbed “Desktop Performance,” this work is based on traditional rituals from the Indonesian island of Java. During the 30-minute performance, the familiar desktop is transformed into a mesmerizing object.

Herdimas Anggara sees the digital platforms or software we use every day as controlled spaces and standardized orders. He recreates familiar digital environments such as Google, Gmail, and YouTube on his desktop and then hacks or crashes them to disrupt the digital systems we uncritically accept.

All the elements seen on the desktop screen are reconstructed during the performance into spiritual beings. Icons on the Mac desktop screen move along the background music like dancers possessed by a powerful spirit, and the digital demon lurking behind YouTube reveals its true identity and is on the loose. Folder icons blink rapidly, scanning through stored files like an x-ray; arrow icons scurry across the desktop; text is warped, and waves of spam e-mails flood the screen.

The artist visualizes these invisible technologies that take over the digital environment and invoke “digital spirits” to compel users to take certain actions, freeing computer networks from the grip of capital and the state and inspiring a shift in thinking about “active user experience.”

live-streamed performance, four-channel video, color, sound, approx. 30 min.
Herdimas ANGGARA
born in Jakarta, Indonesia / based in Richmond, Virginia, USA

Herdimas Anggara appropriates the affordances of technology to emulate religious ecstasy and altered states of consciousness through contemporary takes on Javanese ritual performances in digital and physical spaces. He breaks the sense of familiarity of platforms that he occupies to give them a sense of agency over their preconceived ideologies. He received his MFA from Yale School of Art.

13 Ezekiel AQUINO

“This work is based on a computer language, but the creative process is more like a hand-drawn sketch or weaving a carpet. The realization of the idea involves complex manual work, and the process transforms the invisible sound into a material that can be manipulated, giving the work a personality.”

Capturing the graphic qualities of a score full of symbols and reconstructing them into a visual language has long been a fascination of Ezekiel Aquino. In Generative impromptu, Undulations in C, Op.1 No.1, the artist takes a step further from visualizing musical patterns. He creates a generator that constantly generates music as if the computer were improvising with passion, and he represents the sounds as black and white piano keys embedded in a score, inviting the audience into a flowing audiovisual terrain.

Open to uncertainty and chance, this work creates rules for the artist to compose and perform, but does not finalize them. In the musical part of the work, the “shape” of a phrase, which is the seed of music, is varied by randomly breaking it up, lengthening it, and sometimes omitting elements while continuing a slightly different melody within the key of C. The graphic, which can be thought of as a simplified musical score, creates a fluid performance based on an algorithm. This is where this work overlaps with the pioneering work of Brian Eno, who focused not on the music but on the system that generates it, or Terry Riley’s In C, which uses 53 short, ordered score modules and simple rules to allow the piece to change depending on the performer.

The work lasts 15,000 hours without repetition if the stop button is not pressed. In this case, no repetition is the same non-repeating as the flow of people and cars at an intersection. At an intersection, certain elements move according to set rules, but the landscape of the intersection is ever-changing. This work repeats its theme in the same manner, but the context, timing, and manner in which it appears differs each time. It’s uncontrollable and unpredictable. People encounter a slightly different version of the audiovisual event each time they access the site where the work is hosted.

Undulations in C, Op.1 No.1
website, sound, 15,000 hours
Ezekiel AQUINO
born in Quezon City, Philippines / based in Amsterdam, Netherlands

Ezekiel Aquino is a graphic designer, front-end developer, and creative coder. He uses design, coding, and everything in between as his creative tools. He playfully composes and reconstructs patterns found in everyday life, objects, memories, and serendipity into screen-based digital media, creating works that are functional, robust, and elegant. He studied industrial design at the University of the Philippines and received a master’s degree in interaction design from Hogeschool voor de Kunsten Utrecht.

14 YOKOYAMA Yuichi

PLAZA is composed of 14 pages from Yuichi Yokoyama’s 2019 manga of the same title. The work is inspired by the Rio Carnival in Brazil, a grand and frenzied spacetime where colorful performances on a moving stage are interwoven with the roar of excited crowds. PLAZA is the most uncompromising and noisy presentation of Yokoyama’s work, which has been dubbed “neo-manga,” with no dialog but just dense drawings depicting marches, dances, cheers, and explosions, and onomatopoeic words like “dodododo (ドドドド),” “gorogoro (ゴロゴロ),” and “paka-paka (パカパカ)” that appear in every image, creating a visual noise that reaches the viewer.

What the artist puts into his manga instead of narratives is a universality that can be interpreted in any direction and won’t become retro over time. He painstakingly removes any indication of the time period, country, season, space, race, or gender of the characters, leaving all interpretations up to the reader and focusing on the visual interest of each scene. The same goes for favoring onomatopoeia over lines that cannot be perfectly translated into a foreign language.

In Yokoyama’s manga, time flows evenly. He uses onomatopoeia to control the size and density of the cuts, making each cut contain the same amount of time—two seconds. He draws a series of landscapes, spaces, and objects, giving movement to a still image and visualizing the passage of time. PLAZA depicts approximately eighty seconds of time, while the manga of the same title, which spans 225 pages of marching and nothing happens in the end, covers twenty-four minutes of time.

Though visually connected yet with no semantic link between the cuts, Yokoyama’s work resembles a game that gets more interesting as the audience gets involved. While some people are intrigued by every cut and others quickly give up reading, the artist doesn’t provide easy entertainment, saying only that “That’s what visual art is supposed to be like.” It’s up to the viewer to make sense of it and find the fun in it

digital print on fabric, 283 × 2,440 cm
born in Miyazaki, Japan / based in Kanagawa, Japan

After studying oil painting at Musashino Art University and exhibiting fine art, Yokoyama Yuichi expanded his activities to comics as a medium to “draw time” from 2000 onwards. His style is known as ‘neo-manga,’ expressing the passage of time with fast-paced lines and onomatopoeia. His manga collections include NEO-MANYO (2023), PLAZA (2019), ICELAND (2016), The Room of the World Map (2013), Room (2013), Baby Boom (2009), Outdoor (2009), Garden (2007), Travel (2006), and New Engineering (2004). His books of drawings and paintings include Fashion and Closed room (2015), BABY BOOM FINAL (2010), and YOKOYAMA YUICHI PAINTING (2006). Most of his works have been translated and published in France, the United States, Italy, and Spain. Since his first large-scale solo exhibition The Complete Neo Manga of YOKOYAMA Yuichi: Since I draw time (Kawasaki City Museum, Kanagawa, 2010), he has held several solo exhibitions in and outside Japan, and has been participating in a number of group exhibitions every year. His works are in the collections of the Mori Art Museum and the National Museum of Modern Art in Tokyo, as well as the Long Museum in Shanghai.

15 Eric Timothy CARLSON

ETC × Bon Iver: Ten Years of Art and Creative Direction is a collection of art, design, images, and physical material from the last decade of Eric Timothy Carlson’s role as Art Director for the band Bon Iver.

Carlson began working with Bon Iver in 2013 upon visiting April Base, their recording studio outside of Eau Claire, Wisconsin, to begin discussing artwork for their next studio album 22, a Million. Over the next three years, Bon Iver and Carlson worked closely on all aspects of the album’s visual identity. Following the album’s release in the fall of 2016, Carlson was established as Art Director.

As Art Director, Carlson has been responsible for the art and design of the two studio albums 22, a Million and i,i; their coinciding marketing campaigns; lyrics; videos; the ten-year anniversary redesigns for their previous three albums; two singles from 2020; hundreds of t-shirt designs; thousands of poster and admat designs; blogs; websites; installations; live performance video; campaigns for political activism; and more.

Though much of this body of work is publicly available, rarely is it viewed in unison. This installation gives voice to the methodical process applied in creating this dense oeuvre, highlighting unseen and original assets, and providing an opportunity to view this vast output as a singular body for the first time.

ETC × Bon Iver: Ten Years of Art and Creative Direction
inkjet and laserjet prints on paper, screen prints on paper, offset print on paper, pen and pencil on paper, collages, videos (color, silent), installation 130 × 2,522 × 200 cm
Eric Timothy CARLSON
born in Walnut Creek, USA / based in Brooklyn, USA

Eric Timothy Carlson is a multidisciplinary artist based in Brooklyn. He studied at the Minneapolis College of Art and Design and works in collage, painting, publications, installations, and video with a unique approach that involves a complex layering of materials and deft use of semiotics. Since 2018, he has been running his studio and has collaborated with artists, musicians, cultural institutions, and organizations such as Bon Iver, Boys Noize, 37d03d, and Performance Space 122. He teaches at the university and has been a panelist and speaker at cultural events organized by the Walker Art Center, Printed Matter, and others. He has had solo exhibitions at Pioneer Works, Printed Matter, and Fisher Parrish Gallery in New York, and has presented collaborative works at exhibitions at various artistic institutions, including the Massachusetts Museum of Contemporary Art, Telematic Media Arts Gallery, and Manhattan Bridge Archway. He was also nominated for Grammy Awards in 2017 and 2019 for his work on album packaging design.

16 Josse PYL

CAN TT AST EMY TH OUG HTS weaves the various components of Josse Pyl's practice into a new, site-specific presentation. By utilizing the architectural vocabulary of the building, the installation explores how language takes shape and dissolves in a circular structure similar to digestion. Walls become communicative artifacts, bearing symbols and thoughts engraved into their materiality, forming a scattered sentence of reliefs. Its message is simultaneously transcribed and distorted, similar to how the tongue and teeth sculpt our words before they push them outside the body into the world.

The building becomes a spatial poem, narrating the production of language beyond words but rather by evoking associations in the reader's mind. The installation offers a genuine stroll, reminiscent of a tourist or archaeological experience, making familiar communicational patterns visible yet estranged. Visitors move through a series of artifacts that appear as remnants of an unknown language, forming a path of resonance that conventional language struggles to articulate. While walking among the displayed ruins, the cultural codes and signals that we often take for granted are distorted, allowing us to explore different perspectives on what it means to understand and how we form our perception of the world.

molded plaster, concrete blocks, cement, installation approx. 180 × 1,120 × 960 cm

The artist and Annet Gelink Gallery

Sponsored by
Creative Industries Fund NL

Creative Industries Fund NL
Josse PYL
born in Sint-Niklaas, Belgium / based in Amsterdam, Netherlands

Josse Pyl studied at Werkplaats Typografie before completing his residency at the Rijksakademie van Beeldende Kunsten. Pyl's work delves into the production and performance of language to uncover the underlying connections that bind one human to another. By using language as a malleable material, the artist examines how we can read the world beyond simple text—how language is not merely a collection of words but a tapestry of thoughts and emotions woven together with symbols, sounds, and movements, where signs and ideas flow through bodies and realities. Pyl tries to unravel this linguistic web that surrounds us by creating drawings, sculptures, and videos that come together in spatial environments, where language and thoughts come to life, where they move and get lost.

17 LEE Hanbum

Studies in Gray is an attempt to intersect the realms of print and sound using “gray” as a protocol. If typography is a holistic approach to adjusting the gray area between black (letters) and white (background), which is the effect produced by manipulating the gray area, the sound is also a phenomenon shaped by the relationship between vibrations and the space in which they occur. As such, what we perceive as sound is the constant movement of that relationship. In this case, field recording becomes a way to capture and reproduce the gray areas of sound. A possible twist on this is to assume that both the capabilities we call technology and the conscious process of perceiving something as an object involve gray areas. In this sense, Studies in Gray is an exploration of this assumption by examining various technological practices that deal with gray areas.

The results of Studies in Gray are brought to life in the exhibition as a writing and a sound installation, which are shared through reading and listening. The text centers on a discussion of the function of gray in typography and a discussion of field recording, a methodology that explores sound as an event in the gray zone, and explores the gray as motion itself. Instead of calling attention to or emphasizing a specific object, sound explores an ever-changing nature of relationships that shifts like a landscape. In other words, it listens to the landscape where elements move and transform in space, and proposes a gray epistemology with sensations and images that are produced by the landscape. Text and sound installations will be found unexpectedly in a variety of liminal spaces that include hidden spaces within the exhibition, hallways, and staircases, among others.

[ Research Lab—Studies in Gray ] ↗

Studies in Gray
sound installation (looped), offset print on paper, 29.7 × 42 cm (3)
LEE Hanbum
born in Busan, South Korea / based in Seoul, South Korea

Lee Hanbum is an art critic and editor. He is the founder of Rasun Pressn and Rasun Library.

18 Slavs and Tatars

Love Letters, composed of ten carpets, centers on 20th-century orthography reforms in Russia and Turkey and addresses “alphabet politics,” in which the state imposes certain letters on spoken words. It satirizes the painful experience of reading and writing one’s native language in a foreign script and the linguistic acrobatics to accommodate it.

Slavs and Tatars drew caricatures based on paintings by Russian poet and playwright Vladimir Mayakovsky in his play Neither Healer, nor God, nor the Angels of God Are Any Help to the Peasantry (1923), which satirized aristocracy, clergy, and religion, and made them into carpets for visitors to sit on. The theme that permeates the ten carpets is the discord between letters and sounds, the tongue and the masses: the casualties of language reform and the traumas of modernization. In this exhibition, five works from the series are presented.

Shortly after the Russian Revolution in 1917, the Bolsheviks replaced the Arabic script used by Muslim and Turkic-speaking peoples during the Russian Empire with the Latin script, claiming that they wanted to unify the writing of the 130 languages in the federation and spread socialism. Stalin, who came to power after Lenin’s death in 1924, emphasized the united Soviet state and instituted a language reform that changed the Latin alphabet back to Cyrillic. Around 1940, all Soviet republics were forced to abandon the Latin alphabet and adopt the Cyrillic alphabet in a short period of time.

Love Letters no.1 depicts an unsuccessful attempt to assign Cyrillic letters (graphemes) to phonemes or sounds that do not exist in the Cyrillic alphabet. In Love Letters no.2, the tongue struggles in a cage, rebelling against the institutional power that attempts to fit phonemes (sounds) to graphemes (letters). Love Letters no.3 features a four-pronged tongue that acrobatically ‘juggles’ to accommodate multiple languages. پ[p] / چ[ch] / ژ[j] / گ[g] are additions to the Persian script, which is an adaptation of the Arabic script to represent Persian phonemes not found in Arabic. Love Letters no.9, which can be seated by the audience, satirizes the Soviet Union’s divisive rule in 1939, when it changed the notation of minority languages back to Cyrillic from Latin, forcing each language to write a slightly different-looking Cyrillic script, preventing minorities from communicating. The person depicted in the carpet is in distress, shouting out “[dʒ],” written in five different letters.

Meanwhile, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, who founded the Republic of Turkey in 1928, introduced Latin script to replace the Arabic script used to write Turkish in an effort to modernize the language. However, in the history of language reform in many countries, it was rare for linguists to take on this elaborate task. It was politicians, nationalists, and amateur linguists who changed the living system of language. In Love Letters no.8, a peasant woman wearing a hijab is amputated after being hit by a “Kurumumsu.” “Kurumumsu” means “institutional,” and the character is another victim of institutionalized language modernization and “reform.”

Love Letters no.1, 2, 3, 8, 9
woollen yarn, approx. 250 × 250 cm (5)
Slavs and Tatars
formed in 2006 / based in Berlin, Germany

Slavs and Tatars is a faction of polemics and intimacies devoted to an area east of the former Berlin Wall and west of the Great Wall of China known as Eurasia. The collective’s practice is based on three activities: exhibitions, books, and lecture-performances. In addition to launching a residency and mentorship program for young professionals from their region, Slavs and Tatars opened Pickle Bar, a Slavic aperitivo bar-cum-project space a few doors down from their studio in Berlin-Moabit, as well as an online merchandising store: MERCZbau.

19 JO Hyejin

Migrating Typeface is a font created by Jo Hyejin by collecting the handwriting of migrant people living in South Korea in 2018, 2020, and 2022. The production of the work begins with the migrant participants filling out a questionnaire that asks them about their life in Korea, including the words they use most, the words they hear most, their favorite sentences, and the names of their families. The artist then selects letters from the returned questionnaires, outlines them, creates a font, and distributes it for free on the project’s website.

Created by 54 migrants from 13 countries, the Migrating Typeface consists of 620 characters, including numbers and symbols. The artist considers fonts as a hierarchical system and tries to disrupt that system by mixing the fonts of migrants among the letters written in Korean Batangche font.

“Of the 11,172 characters in Hangul, we use about 2,350 characters in our daily lives, and the ones we use a lot are compressed to about 210 characters. Migrating Font includes characters that exist outside of these 210 characters, created by the participant's native language pronunciation. This is a particular area that can't be filled with simply Hangul words that are meaningful to Koreans, and it's an area that is often left out of Hangul font development for practical reasons. This relationship structure is a metaphor for the distinction between immigrants and Koreans in everyday life.”

Installed alongside Migrating Typeface, Five Seas is a work that deals with the impression of “sea,” a recurring word in interviews with migrants living in Gangneung. In this work, the artist enlarges the word “sea” written by five people and mounds some of its outline with earth. Made of tiles, the artwork is placed on the floor of the exhibition space to create a boundary, but that boundary is not high, easily crossed, and easily broken. The letters written on the questionnaires are flat, but they are embodied in the repetitive movements of the hands and represent the experiences of each migrant. The artist creates a three-dimensional sculpture of some of these letters, inviting us to think about and imagine the specific lives of individuals that exist beyond the flat text.

Migrating Typeface
Hangul letter form 620 characters, digital print on paper, related materials

Five Seas
latex tile, 47 × 47 cm (23)
JO Hyejin
born in Seoul, South Korea / based in Seoul, South Korea

Jo Hyejin is a sculptor based in Seoul. In her practice, she focuses on how members of society behave and on objects as forms that reflect such behaviors. She establishes a cross-referential relationship between kineticity and sculpture, where objects are produced and consumed according to the needs of society. As such, she established her exploration of the sculptural medium as the motif that drives her work. For her solo exhibition Look, Shape, Place (Space Willing N Dealing, Seoul, 2021), she created and distributed the handwriting of migrants as a font. For Shape, From the Side: Reading Documents (d/p, Seoul, 2019), she brought patent documents into the realm of sculpture and interpreted them.

20 KIM Nuiyeon & JEON Yongwan

The Third Thing (2023) continues, rewrites, and rewrites DICTEE (1982) by visual artist and author Theresa Hak Kyung Cha (1951-1982). This is the result of looking at DICTEE, an experimental book that is not fixed in one identity and an open book as a process. Through the process of rewriting the existing book, The Third Thing also becomes a book that is open through a process. The process is a movement that accompanies and guarantees the inevitability of subsequent use, expanding inward and outward. “DICTEE” is the French word for “dictation.” In DICTEE, the “talking woman” hears and transcribes voices that have been lost and forgotten. The act of speaking and writing audible sounds can be repeated, nested, and spread through multiple people.

The Third Thing reflects the nine chapters of DICTEE in nine untitled acts. There are opening and closing essays at the beginning and end of the book, and they cycle through each other. Each act begins with a poem that comes from one of Teresa Hak Kyung Cha’s many works of art. This is followed by a series of texts in a variety of formats, along with a few pictures.

The polyphonic, surplus voices that continue to be written, rewritten, and rewritten differently in The Third Thing are directed toward the “third kind” that exists within and outside of the time and space of DICTEE. Unfolded as “writing” as a third space that expands the third kind, which symbolizes the minority in a society, these texts are deconstructed, separated, quoted, repeated, superimposed, chained, and hybridized, and in doing so, draw incomplete, non-linear, and pluralistic trajectories. Once again, language is at the root of it all.

The Third Thing
offset print on paper, thread sewn binding, hardcover, 17.4 × 16 cm, 216 pages
KIM Nuiyeon & JEON Yongwan
born in Seoul, South Korea / based in Seoul, South Korea

Kim Nuiyeon & Jeon Yongwan work with language as a material. They have presented their documents and writings on a number of occasions, including “Literary Walks” (MMCA Seoul, 2016), “Rhetoric—Embellishment and Digression”(ARKO Art Center, Seoul, 2017), “Period” (Art Sonje Center, Seoul, 2019), La Piéce (Onsu Gong-gan, Seoul, 2020).

21 Murty Classical Library of India

Murty Classical Library of India is a bilingual book series that publishes classical Indian literature with English translations. The project was commissioned by Harvard University Press and designed by Fiona Ross, Rathna Ramanathan, John Hudson, Henrik Kubel, Titus Nemeth, and Guglielmo Rossi.

This project presents the literary, historical, and religious texts of ancient India, including the Vedas, which reflect a sophisticated oral culture, in a variety of Indian languages and corresponding notational systems. Hudson and Ross did extensive archival research to ensure that the old literature was properly presented, which led to the creation of Murty Typefaces. For Indian languages, they used the Murty Typefaces: Murty Bengla, Murty Hindi, Murty Kannada, Murty Gurmukhi, Murty Sanskrit, and Murty Telugu; for Persian, they Nasim, a typeface designed by Titus Nemeth; and for English, they used Antwerp, a typeface designed by Henrik Kubel.

Rathna Ramanathan and Guglielmo Rossi designed and typeset the cover and text based on research of Indian manuscripts and early printed materials. The text design is inspired by musical polyphony, which consists of two or more voices with independent melodies, and is organized in a symmetrical structure, allowing for flexible adjustment of margins, column widths, interlinear spacing, type size, etc. according to the different characteristics of Indian and Latin scripts and writing styles such as poetry and prose. It was a process of openly acknowledging and embracing the differences between the two languages, finding synchronicity in reading, and emphasizing intertextuality.

In her Typographics 2016* online talk, Fiona Ross said, “I would like non-Latin scripts to achieve parity with Latin in terms of quality and choice—then the term ‘non-Latin’ could become completely redundant! For instance, I would like to see authentic script representation on mobile phones so communities would no longer need to transliterate into Latin script in order to send readable text messages.”

In his Cooper Union online lecture**, Rathna Ramanathan used the example of the Murty Classical Library of India to talk about what typography should consider when translating an oral culture into a written one. “Not only do the words need to be repeated exactly, but there's a particular rhythm, cadence, and sonority that needs to be replicated if the verses are to carry their spiritual charge. This is based on the belief that the sounds of words signify as much as the words themselves.”

The Murty Classical Library of India is a rare example of how diversity and accessibility can be embodied in book design, not only in terms of design research, collaboration, and craft, but also in honoring the different voices of Indian and English by developing a typeface that reflects the characteristics of different Indian scripts.

Ross, Fiona. “Typographics 2016: Take One Typeface.” YouTube, Typographics, 29 October 2016, Accessed August 5, 2023.

Ramanathan, Rathna. “Intercultural and decolonial: exploring frameworks for typographic practice.” YouTube, The Cooper Union, 6 December 2021, Accessed August 5, 2023.
Murty Classical Library of India
offset print on paper, thread sewn binding, hardcover, 21 × 13 cm (10)

Harvard University Press

Rohan Murty

Murty Typefaces
John Hudson and Fiona Ross

Antwerp Designer
Henrik Kubel

Nassim Designer
Titus Nemeth

Book Design and Typesetting
Rathna Ramanathan and Guglielmo Rossi
Murty Classical Library of India
founded in 2010 / published in Cambridge, USA

Fiona ROSS born in London, UK / based in Gloucestershire, UK
Ross specializes in South Asian type design and typography, having a background in languages and a Ph.D. in Indian Palaeography. She works as a designer, author, lecturer, and Professor in Type Design at the University of Reading. She has collaborated with Adobe and Harvard University Press. Between 2018 and 2021, she led the research project Women in Type ( with Alice Savoi and Helena Lekka, which shed light on the contributions of women in the design of some of the most famous typefaces of the 20th century.

Rathna RAMANATHAN born in Chennai, India / based in London, UK
Ramanathan is a designer and researcher known for her expertise in research-driven, intercultural, multi-platform graphic communication design projects between the US, UK, and the Indian subcontinent. She is the Head of College at Central Saint Martins.

John HUDSON born in Bristol, UK / based in Gabriola, Canada
John Hudson designs typefaces and makes fonts for a wide range of writing systems. He is co-founder of Tiro Typeworks, a tiny company that for over 30 years has made some of the world’s most widely used fonts. In 2022, he received an Emmy award for his contributions to broadcast and web font standards.

Henrik KUBEL born in Copenhagen, Denmark / based in London, UK
Kubel is a type designer and co-founder of type foundry A2-TYPE. A2’s library of fonts now includes more than 100 unique typefaces (well over 1000 fonts) created over the past 20 years. Since launching A2-TYPE in 2010, the team has collaborated with leading design companies and global clients to create bespoke typeface systems for brands, newspapers, books, magazines, and journals across the world.

Titus NEMETH born in Mödling, Austria / based in Vienna, Austria
Nemeth is a typographic designer and historian. His practice revolves around Arabic and multilingual type design and typography, and his publications include the monograph Arabic Type-Making in the Machine Age (Brill, 2017) and Arabic Typography: History and Practice (editor, niggli, 2023).


TISSUE OFFICE Inc. is a startup that creates digital services. When they develop a service, they always propose a hypothesis, run some experiments to validate it, and then either develop or discard it. In this case, experimentation is about listening to one’s audience. For example, they recruit users of the service to conduct user interviews to ask about usability, or they use “prototyping” techniques to gauge the demand of their target audience by implementing only the minimum functionality of an unreleased service.

The data from the experiment will determine whether the hypothesis is true or false. Here, data doesn’t necessarily refer to numbers, and can be categorized as quantitative or qualitative depending on its nature. Quantitative data are metrics like click-through rates, dwell time, and conversion rates. Qualitative data refers to the responses of interviewees in an interview, including spoken or written responses to questions, as well as nonverbal expressions such as laughter and silence. Neither data is an objective fact in and of itself, but is collected and judged in context.

Job interviews are one of the situations where this data setup is maximized. The interviewer sets certain criteria to find the right person, asks questions to determine how well the candidate meets the criteria, and reviews the candidate’s answers against the criteria before deciding whether to hire the person or not.

In this exhibition, TISSUE OFFICE will reenact a recruitment interview situation under the title of 2023 Tissue Office Inc. Designer Special Employment Interview. With the interviewer asking and answering questions by voice and the candidate by text, the piece is completed with audience participation, a kind of improvisational theater that unfolds according to each other’s distinct purposes and needs.

2023 Tissue Office Inc. Designer Special Employment Interview
interactive installation, single-channel video, color, sound, web-based responsive screen, web camera, laptop
founded in 2019 / based in Seoul, South Korea

TISSUE OFFICE is a startup launched in Seoul in the spring of 2019. It is a multidisciplinary group consisting of people from different areas, including architecture, product design, and graphics. In its approach to different phenomena, it distances itself from ‘clear, complete, and safe’ options. The company’s business primarily focuses on producing games. In 2021, TISSUE OFFICE released KUNTRA, a cultural and artistic metaverse exploring all corners of Planet Mars. Currently, the company is providing constant updates on the service. TISSUE OFFICE is often machine-translated as an ‘organization office’ in Korean since the word ‘tissue’ also means an organization in Korean.

23 Chris RO

For the past several years, Chris Ro has been exploring the concept of sound in his work. But not the sound you hear or experience with your ears, nor sound visualization or the visualizing of existing sounds. More so, he has been exploring how a visual person might create sounds or sounds that can be experienced without the ears. This project is a collection and installation of these sounds. Some of them you can experience through rhythm, repetition, movement, and space. Others are singular fragments or frames from a sound.

Several of these sounds were initially exhibited at the Thieves Like Us at d/p in 2021. The concept of this piece is “hush” or silence. A series of sounds that you can experience with both your body and your eyes. Again, a series of sounds without sound.

mixed media, polycarbonate, aluminum, plywood, mixed paper, acrylic, graphite, plastic, installation approx. 230 × 330 × 157 cm
Chris RO
born in Seattle, USA / based in Seoul, South Korea

Chris Ro is a Korean-American artist currently based in Seoul. He largely works across animation, printing, painting, drawing, and installation. In recent years, he has been exploring concepts that typically have no visual component, such as sound, space, atmosphere, energy, laughter, spirits, and thieves. He has been visually exploring how such traditionally non-visual concepts could and might be experienced visually. Chris Ro has a mixed background in architecture and graphic design, which continues to influence his interpretation of two-dimensional surfaces and three-dimensional spaces. His work has been exhibited around the world and is also part of the permanent collections of several renowned public and private institutions. He has been educated at UC Berkeley, the Rhode Island School of Design, and Seoul National University.

24 YANO Keiji

The Score & Shapes series began with notes scribbled on a sheet of music by a hobbyist marimba player who, while practicing Abe Keiko’s Variations on Japanese Children’s Songs, made notes such as “like colors changing with each key change” and “like sounds coming from far away.” After mastering a song, Yano Keiji looks at the colorful traces left behind by the sheet music, extracts its elements and reconstructs it from the perspective of a performer, and then attempts to create a graphic score that captures the inner landscape that resonates with the music.

Yano imagines a marimba melody that the composer has stored as notes and musical symbols on the staves, and draws shapes by “inflating the image of the piece” through interventions in the gaps where the score does not indicate. He gives the song its shape, texture, color, and size by recalling his memories of the performance-where he held it in one breath, how he started and ended each note. Then, with paper and ink, he materializes the weighty, powerful sound of the marimba and the hours of accumulated practice.

“When I perform a song, I imagine a landscape that I want to show the audience. Score & Shapes: Variations on Japanese Children’s Songs, which feels halfway between abstraction and math, turns out to resemble the landscape of my hometown of Setouchi. It was interesting to see how the music and graphics subconsciously reflected the landscape of my hometown.”

Score & Shapes: Variations on Japanese Children’s Songs is primarily a visualization of musical notation, such as accents and crescendos in a musical score. The density of the ink corresponds to pitch (lighter for lower notes, darker for higher notes), the color of the ink and the shape of the figures indicate timbre and speed, and the accumulation of color conveys the tonal weight of a song with many bass notes. Score & Shapes: Rhythm Song is based on Paul Smadbeck’s famous marimba solo, Rhythm Song. The score, which maintains a steady rhythm from the beginning to the end, is often notated as “Distantly,” with the artist painstakingly rendering the notes like a pointillist painting, imagining a waveless sea with a faint glimpse of the horizon, England’s Stanage escarpment, and a train traveling across a vast expanse of land. The nature of risography printing, with its subtle misalignment of dots and difficulty in controlling color precisely, suggests the differences between composing and performing, and the similarities between human performance and analog printing.

The exhibition display also features marimba recordings of the artist’s performances of Variations on Japanese Children’s Songs and Rhythm Song as well as his independent publication series under the title Score & Shapes.

Score & Shapes: Variations on Japanese Children's Songs
2019/2023년br /> risograph print on paper, 42 × 29.7 cm (14), caption 10 × 415.8 cm, booklet (YANO, K., Score & Shapes: Variations on Japanese Children's Songs, 2019, risograph print on paper, thread sewn binding, 27.7 × 20 / 21 × 15 cm, 20 / 20 pages), sound, 5 min. 4 sec.

ABE Keiko

Score & Shapes: Rhythm Song
risograph print on paper, 42 × 29.7 cm (14), caption 10 × 415.8 cm, booklet (YANO, K., Score & Shapes: Rhythm Song, 2023, risograph print on paper, thread sewn binding, 27.7 × 20 / 27.7 × 20 cm, 14 / 16 pages), sound, 9 min. 24 sec.


Special thanks to
YANO Keiji
born in Kagawa, Japan / based in Japan

Yano Keiji is a graphic designer based in Japan. Yano sets his own rules in terms of visual identity and showcases his typography-based exhibition, package, monograph, identity system design, and branding work. With an interest in experiences and memories through visual design, he combines commissioned work with experimental creative activities.

25 seendosi

Active since 2015, seendosi is a bar, a venue, a label, and a small press. seendosiBOOK is a large “archive zine” that brings together the results of seendosi’s various activities over the past eight years. It includes posters, magazines, stickers, and other printed materials such as t-shirts, hats, bags, and other items created to promote the various events at seendosi’s space and the results of commissioned projects or seendosi’s content. They are displayed in a large scrapbook that visitors can flip through, glued together on several sheets of Lexan.

seendosi often uses screen print or risograph print to create what they need, taking an improvisational and experimental approach to their work and actively choosing their creative materials. For this reason, the production is mostly made in a labor-intensive form that involves manual labor. Through seendosi’s eight years of work across multiple visual genres, including graphic design, typography, painting, illustration, and comics, audiences can discover the dynamic currents and presence of Seoul’s and East Asia’s subcultures.

wooden structure, Lexan, digital print on paper, risograph print on paper, screen print on paper, paper, cloth, 250 × 120-262 × 22-120 cm

Collaboration with
several artists working on SDS Production
LEE Byoungjae in Seoul, South Korea / based in Seoul, South Korea
LEE Yoonho in Anseong, South Korea / based in Seoul, South Korea

As an arts venue and multidisciplinary artistic team in Euljiro, Seoul, seendosi was established in 2015 and run by artist Lee Byoungjae and photographer Lee Yoonho. In addition to their own performances and events, they have participated in a number of events and exhibitions, including ADIDAS Originals Superstar–New Top, Jisan Valley Rock Festival, Tokyo Art Book Fair, do it 2017, Seoul, Seoul Mediacity Biennale, and Fikra Graphic Design Biennial. All of seendosi’s work is conceived in collaboration with artists. In 2016, seendosi established SDS Production to produce its own content, collaborating with musicians, artists, designers, and cartoonists to create subcultural music, publications, videos, and merchandise. In 2020, seendosi opened Midopa Coffee House in Yeonhee-dong, Seoul, and has been organizing various events in conjunction with their venue in Euljiro.

26 SOHN Youngeun

Crisp is both an installation and a reading performance that traces the modern manifestation of parchment or papyrus scrolls, the recording medium of the ancients before the advent of paper and printing, and examines the physical properties of paper and cloth, reflecting an interest in the act of investigating, collecting, and reading about the properties of paper and cloth.

Installed in the exhibition, a large scroll, which measures one meter wide and 100 meters long, is a script for a performance. The script is usually printed in a small booklet, and its lines and prints are only revealed through the performers, and do not appear on stage in their own right. However, this script has a distinct presence at the center of the performance, connecting the work to the audience. Sohn connects paper and body through the form of the script, the way it is read, and the sounds it evokes, resetting the relationship between the script and the audience.

There are three sounds featured in the performance of Crisp. One is the voice of the author reading the script. Another is the sound of the paper, created by the artist’s gesture as she moves among the papers that fill one side of the exhibition space, picking them up and reading them like a script. The last is the imaginary sound that the narrative of the script evokes. A printed script with loosely connected text and images conceals its contents in the form of a scroll, which is gradually activated by the artist’s reading.

The story engages the senses and the imagination, taking the audience through a variety of spaces and culminating in a red-carpeted performance venue. It begins with the scooping of pulp to make thin paper, the sound of seaweed harvested from the sea as it is spread out to dry, the memories of grilling nori with one's mother, the feel of grass-fed mossy clothes and bedding, and the movement of unrolling the dried fabric.

At the end of the performance, the script returns to being a work of art, and the audience that reads it changes from the artist to the audience. The story, which flows in a linear progression with the artist’s reading, becomes fragmented and reconstructed by the audience’s individual readings through the installation.

digital color print on paper, paper roll 10,000 × 100 cm, steel structure, 199.5 × 125 × 100 cm
SOHN Youngeun
born in Bucheon, South Korea / based in Amsterdam, Netherlands

Sohn Youngeun employs diverse media, including images, texts, books, videos, and even clothes, to create performances that reflect a specific time and place. Interested in the gestures and behaviors that exist between the human body and everyday objects, she attempts to subvert the boundaries between everyday life and performance through media that are familiar to us. Currently, Sohn teaches at the Gerrit Rietveld Academie.

27 LEE Jungmyung

LETTERS akes the form of crosswords and rebuses, employing image representations of each illuminated letter to unveil its unique story. An illuminated letter is an elaborate capitalization at the beginning of a text, usually to emphasize the text or to beautify the print. Throughout its extensive history, the illuminated letter—a laboriously adorned capital letter within a textual segment—forges intricate, complementary, or sharply contrasting connections with the adjoining text.

While looking at the giant wall display of LETTERS, visitors can create imaginative storytelling that takes place where each letter crafts stories as it shapes words, generates sounds, and culminates in imagery within a seamless cycle. The work is seen through the lens of letters as both storytellers and cumulative agents, coalescing boundless stories within their narratives. For example:

The frog, who joyfully played the flute in the pond, got caught by a heron,

Desperately trying to escape from that situation,

In the end, it managed to escape narrowly by putting the flute he played in the heron’s beak, creating the letter “A,”

And the upside-down exclamation mark embodies the frog’s determination, which turned into the heron’s tears.

adhesive sheets, 420 × 840 cm
LEE Jungmyung
born in Seoul, South Korea / based in Amsterdam, Netherlands

Lee Jungmyung is a graphic and type designer. Lee considers fonts as characters with thoughts, feelings, and life trajectories and runs the Jung-Lee Type Foundry, which researches and produces experimental typefaces. With her type foundry, she created typefaces including “Impact Nieuw,” “Orbis,” and “Jungka.” Her interest in the interplay of language and typographic forms led him to present her personal work in many forms, including writing, music, and video. She publishes Real-Time Realist, an experimental art journal that explores the range of human emotions through typography, visual art, and contemporary writing. She studied industrial design at Hongik University in Seoul and received a master’s degree from Werkplaats Typografie. Currently, Lee teaches at the Gerrit Rietveld Academie and Werkplaats Typografie.

28 Manita SONGSERM

The Typewriter Art series is a work that experiments with minimal typographic elements such as line spacing, line length, and flow of margins, along with the artist’s interest in typesetting work that she has been repeating over the years.

Songserm invests in creating a compelling visual impression with typography and creating a sense of immersion. Her works reveal attempts to organize vast amounts of information on a limited surface, to create order, but also to break the rules of order, hiding elements of defiance throughout the strict grid. This approach is in line with her preference for electronic and experimental pop music, where subtle notes are captured in energetic, complex rhythms that create a whole new mood. Some of the works in the Typewriter Art series are based on music, but even if they are not, they create a sense that the letters are vibrating since the repetition of different elements of typography creates a visual rhythm.

When asked about their intentions, Songserm is more likely to answer with hypothesis, experimentation, observation, or iteration than inspiration. “I spend a lot of time analyzing information and looking for things behind the words, and I’m affected by the process itself. I hypothesize, experiment, fail, and keep going until I feel the visual impression is very close to what I’m trying to convey.”

Typewriter Art Series

Aire Bold Pro
digital print on paper, 49.3 × 29.3 cm

Raleway Thin
digital print on paper, 49.3 × 29.3 cm

Zapf Dingbats
digital print on paper, 29.6 × 20.9 cm

Prestige Elite Std Bold
digital print on paper, 29.6 × 20.9 cm

Prestige Elite Std Bold no.1–4
digital print on paper, 45 × 32 cm (4)

The Two Areas #1, #2
offset print on paper, 55.4 × 37.1 cm (2)

To Whom It May Concern
digital print on paper, 28.2 × 19.9 cm (4)

The End of Tejada
digital print on paper, 18.5 × 27.3 cm (6)

digital print on paper, 21.9 × 43.8 cm

kar kt ˈrɪstɪk no.1–6
digital print on paper, 42 × 29.7 cm (6)
born in Nakhon Ratchasima, Thailand / based in Bangkok, Thailand

Manita Songserm is a graphic designer and typographer. She began her career as an exhibition graphic designer at the Bangkok Art and Culture Center (BACC), where she collaborated with a wide range of artists using experimental mediums as her muse, moving freely between the design and art worlds. Her designs are represented by her typography-focused book cover designs and personal work, the Typewriter Art series, which utilizes several techniques of typography to create neo-geometric digital images that mix scientific elements. She has been an Alliance Graphique Internationale (AGI) member since 2019.

29 Sophie DOUALA

“In ‘Follow The Black Rabbit,’ Sophie is inviting us to enter a dream world. Triggered by social shakedowns of the past two years—the struggle for civil rights and racial equity, financial and social insecurities, a health pandemic, and the resulting debilitating lockdowns—Sophie inverts the Alice in Wonderland myth giving it a political twist to reflect the real world. It is celebratory and melancholy at the same time.”
—Thomas Castro

Follow The Black Rabbit is a graphic installation that fills two huge semicircular windows in the hallway on the second floor of the exhibition space. Sophie Douala says that 2020 and the years that followed, marked by the start of the long pandemic and the murder of George Floyd, were a time of learning to be stronger from sadness and anger by drawing on forgotten memories and emotions. A mantra for reflection and enlightenment, the work reflects on that time and experiments with the interplay of visual language and emotion. Follow The Black Rabbit stems from a very personal emotion that the artist defines as “a transition, an evolution, a break in time, a pause.” Yet, it blends the painful with the glamorous, the political with the beautiful, while bringing together people living through the same experiences at the same time.

It was originally presented in the Stedelijk Museum Amsterdam, June 2022—January 2023, as part of the graphic design series Post/No/Bills, curated by Thomas Castro. The artist and curator carefully reorganized the work to fit the exhibition space, Culture Station Seoul 284, while maintaining the mood and narrative flow of the original work. The graphic patterns, which display a rhythmic and rhyming quality through repetition, cast colorful shadows across the exhibition hall depending on the light. They connect with the word “within” that appears in the video installed at the end of the corridor, proposing a reflective attitude that affirms instability instead of the dichotomy of affirmation and denial.

Follow The Black Rabbit
adhesive sheet, single-channel video, color, silent, installation approx. 850 × 425 / 795 × 393 cm, 1 min. 51 sec.
born in Yaoundé, Cameroon / based in Berlin, Germany

Sophie Douala is a visual artist and creative director. With the cultural backgrounds of Yaoundé, Cameroon, and Paris, France, she explores design through the lens of culture, identity, evolution, emotion, and culture. She balances commissioned work with personal creative endeavors, moving between the worlds of design and art. Her inspiration comes from her generation, their struggles, and their desire for a brighter future.

30 Astrid SEME

Figures for dashing is a book, is a voice, and is a scarf on a paradoxical—if not the most paradoxical—punctuation mark: the em dash. Moreover, it is a homage to Dadaist artist and poet Elsa von Freytag-Loringhoven (1874–1927) and her manic use of em dashes. The purpose of the em (or en) dash is wide-ranging —as an appropriation of silence, as acting dissonance, as an interruption, as occupying space. In Baroness Elsa von Freytag-Loringhoven’s poetry, the em dashes are linguistic elements that conjunct language and its acoustic interpretation. In an enlarged form and with a typesetter’s manner, Seme handed them over to Typojanchi.

In Seme’s accompanying audio piece, the dashes rise to speak. One after the other, they tell us intimately about their bibliography, their history in speech and printing, and of course, they do talk about the likes of other well-known dashers such as Heinrich (von Kleist) and Christian (Morgenstern) and Gertrude (Stein), and Laurence (Sterne) or the queen of dashing herself Emily (Dickinson).

The em dash scarf came into being with an uncharacteristic flop: Suddenly, the em dash has fallen from the page to become a wearable embodiment of Baroness Elsa’s creative spirit—its fluffy surface brought into being from paper fibers and strands of ink. Suddenly transforming into a scarf, the wearer oscillates between writing and performance.

Figures for dashing
sound installation (stereo, 4 min. 25 sec.), dash wall graphics (adhesive sheets, dimensions variable), book (SEME, A., Baroness Elsa’s em dashes: An anthology of dashing in print, poetry & performance, Mark Fetching Books, 2019 / 2022, offset print on paper, perfect binding, 14.5 × 10 cm, 96 pages), the em dash scarf (Teddy fur, 220 × 32 cm, ed. 10 / 30)

Collaboration with
Brian Day (speaker)
Astrid SEME
born in Graz, Austria / based in Vienna, Austria

Astrid Seme is a graphic designer. With cultural backgrounds in Brussels, Johannesburg, and Istanbul, she studied at the University of Applied Arts Vienna and earned her Master’s degree at the Werkplaats Typografie in the Netherlands. Alongside her design work, she teaches students and continues to research typography and its vocalization. She also co-runs Mark Pezinger Books, a publishing company for artist publications.

31 SHIN Donghyeok

“Shin-Yang-Jang Phonogram started from a mild curiosity: can a letter hold both words and sounds? This led to the question, ‘What would it take for a letter to have a pitch scale in addition to speech sounds?’ Ultimately, I decided to be a little reckless and combine the principles of Korean writing and the way notes are written on a stave to create a tool that catches two birds with one stone.”

Shin-Yang-Jang Phonogram is a typeface with a new concept that combines Hangeul and the scale based on specific consonants (ㅎ/ㅊ)—created by simply adding strokes to basic consonants (ㄱ/ㄴ/ㄷ/ㅅ/ㅇ)—and vowel letter ( · ) with its form derived from the sky—among three basic vowels each symbolizing the sky, earth, and human. Below are several principles that were followed while drawing its blueprint.

• This is a typeface.
• It is based on the musical stave.
• Potentially, additional strokes in the basic consonant letter are counted as one note.
• Avoid decorative presentations with unclear logic.
• Compose it as they can be played at the same time as they are typed in.

Shin Donghyeok devised the original drawings of approximately 1,500 Hangeul and Roman characters that share these principles. Based on his sketch, Yang-Jang’s Yang Heejae and Jang Sooyoung created Korean and Roman font and punctuation marks, numbers, and special symbols to accompany them. A website to play the completed Shin-Yang-Jang Phonogram, reinventing the act of typing on a computer keyboard into a musical performance, was developed by Moon Jungju. Visitors can type letters on a computer keyboard installed in the exhibition and see the letters on the screen while hearing the sound of the letters being played.

Shin-Yang-Jang Phonogram
mixed media, Shin-Yang-Jang Phonogram typeface, booklet (SHIN, D., Shin-Yang-Jang Phonogram, Hwawon, 2023, offset print on paper, saddle stitch binding, 30 × 30 cm, 24 pages), website, piano table and jazz stool of COM

Collaboration with
JANG Sooyoung (Hangul font creation), YANG Heejae (Roman font, punctuation marks, numbers, and symbols creation), and MOON Jungju (website development)

Sponsored by
SHIN Donghyeok
born in Seongnam, South Korea / based in Seoul, South Korea

Shin Donghyeok is interested in updating the history, styles, conventions, traditions, and theories of graphic design with creative materials that are relevant to the context of ‘here and now.’ Since 2014, he has been working as a member of a duo ‘Shin Shin’ with graphic designer Shin Haeok.

32 YANG Yu-Chiao

Blackboard Scribophone is a performance that employs a unique format that combines the act of writing with oral commentary expressions drawn on a blackboard. Yang Yu-Chiao weaves together four Taiwanese and four Korean folktales in an oral improvisation performance that takes the audience back to the distant past when stories began, to the time of oral literature when people told stories through speech instead of letters. In the title, the word “scribophone” is a combination of the Latin word “scribo” (writing) and the Greek word “-phone” (sound), which shows the intention of the performance.

For Yang, ancient texts, especially ideograms or hieroglyphics like bone inscriptions, are like audio tapes that store traces of past activities and stories. He uses chalk to access the encrypted and compressed content of the texts, and he talks, sings, chants, and recites as he writes slowly and repeatedly on the blackboard—bone inscriptions, Chinese characters, and Hangul words that symbolize the message of each folktale. During the performance, the chalk acts like a stylus on a phonograph that traces the grooves of a record and plays the sound.

As such, this work is an experiment in telling a narrative with sounds or letters that correspond to the surface of words instead of their meaning. The performance is done in Chinese, based on folk tales collected, categorized, collated, and translated by the artist himself. However, the artist uses bizarre vocalizations and tones to transform words so that even native Chinese audiences cannot easily grasp their meaning. Instead, he delicately conveys sounds in anticipation of the spoken word: melodies, long and short phrases, vocalizations, body movements, and improvisations. The audience understands the content from the Korean summary provided in the exhibition hall, and then infer the message from the sounds, emotions, and movements, relying on the tacit knowledge to enter various imaginative paths.

Since 2018, Yang Yu-Chiaohas presented a series of blackboard performances. The blackboard is reminiscent of an archaeological formation in that even when you erase the writing, a trace remains and new writing is written over it. It reminds us of the way human knowledge, experience, thoughts, and emotions have accumulated and changed over time.

“Oral folklore conveys the universal way humans have made sense of events or things, and folk tales from different countries share similar narratives. It’s similar to building things with blocks. If there’s a Taiwanese folk tale made of blocks A·B·C·D, here are folk tales with the B·C blocks in the Philippines or Indonesia while other countries might have stories that include B·C but unfold in different directions. Oral folklore is designed to be easy to remember, with pauses and idioms. Once the storytelling stars, the plot flows naturally like a skein of yarn being unwound.”

Blackboard Scribophone
sound installation (stereo, 120 min.), wood structures with blackboard surface, 220 × 242 × 6 cm (5)
YANG Yu-Chiao
born in Taipei, Taiwan / based in Kaohsiung, Taiwan

Yang Yu-Chiao is a professional oral tradition narrator and narrative artist specializing in folktales. He studies oral literature, drama, film, and narrative. He presents regular performances throughout Taiwan in the form of lectures titled “World Folktales” and has participated in art festivals and performances in and outside of Taiwan with his experimental sound performance series “Anamorphosis & Anatexis” (folktales) and “Necromantia Dispersus” (poetry). Since 2019, he has taught at the Kaohsiung Film Archive and National Kaohsiung Center for the Arts. He has published Xi Xiang (2023), a collection of acoustic imaging poems, and actively contributes short stories and prose derived from bone inscriptions to various online and offline media outlets. With an interest in collaboration between folk tales and AI, he published a comic book titled Witnesses of the Magpie’s End (2022) using Midjourney and participated in the AI collaboration performance Dance of Words - Resonating Folktales (2023).

33 LEE Sooji

Lee Sooji creates the lattice structure by hand-stitching on paper, then embroidering the lettering and cotton with black thread. The series of works in the exhibition are two-dimensional outputs produced between 2016 and 2022, which are from the artist’s ongoing work, A very personal methodology of crafting the graphic. The works share the format of being exclusively handmade with type and graphics.

“Type was created for the purpose of printing and is nowadays mostly implemented by computer systems. When we write on a keyboard, we often say we are “writing” something, but technically we are not writing; we are pressing or striking. I decided to literally write the type.”

The artist built her own “writing machine” and attempted to use it to write Bodoni, a typeface with geometric shapes and mathematical proportions, precisely according to its rules of composition. However, she ultimately reaffirmed the nature of type, which, unlike writing, cannot be “written” by hand.

Once she had the format of the piece completed, the question of what to write emerged. However, the more heavy the content became, the more the viewer’s gaze was directed in some way. The original message became a “process” that was no longer in its place, disappearing behind the result. The artist explored ways of emptying the screen of content and capturing form in order to leave a trace of the process that has evaporated with time.

The works on display are the result of this practice of “treating letters as images.” By deliberately excluding meaning, Lee treats letters as images like shapes, and letters that have not yet become words as conceptualized images. The typography, graphics, and out-of-plane components, layered with repetition and variation on top of the temporality of the craft of hand-stitching, become an attempt to reveal the great difficulty of the process—the fact that the form has been there, in contrast to the meaninglessness (shallowness) of the surface of the work, which is itself what the artist is trying to convey.

composition 01
paper, ink, thread, 81 × 183 cm

composition 02
paper, ink, thread, 91 × 61 cm

composition 03
paper, ink, thread, 61 × 61 cm

composition 04, 05
paper, ink, thread, 91 × 56 cm

big black squares 01, 02, 03
paper, ink, thread, 81 × 56 cm

extruding 03, 04
paper, thread, 91 × 56 cm
LEE Sooji
born in Seoul, South Korea / based in Seoul, South Korea

Lee Sooji divides her time between Seoul and Amsterdam, working without boundaries between art and design, two-dimensional and object-based works. She studied industrial design at Hongik University and earned a master’s degree in information design from Design Academy Eindhoven. Since 2016, she has been exploring the personalization of form, building tools, and getting two-dimensional results from them. Currently, she is focusing on researching tools that achieve sculptural results. She has held solo exhibitions Goodbye to the art (Limestone Books, Maastricht, 2023), Form forming, Formation (Incheon Art Platform, Incheon, 2023), and Liminal Phase (OCI Museum of Art, Seoul, 2022). Since her first residency at the Jan van Eyck Residency in 2019, she has continued to participate in various artist residencies. In 2023, she was selected as a resident artist at SeMA Nanji Residency in Seoul.

34 MOON Jungju

Typography with Sound creates a connection between spoken word and typography, as the audience reads out the words presented by the artist, which are then translated into letters and typeset in real-time on the screen. Even if the same text is read, the sounds all have different phonetic values depending on the speaker's timbre, pitch, intensity, and timing (speed), sometimes resulting in misreading errors.

Using these various components of sound as parameters, Moon Jungju gives visual “character” to invisible sounds by creating blank space on certain screen panels or converting them into typographic elements such as the size, weight, and position of type.

The work shifts from a “spoken” reading to reading to be “seen,” materializing the temporality of speech on the screen while suggesting that the act of reading aloud relies on the interpretation and physicality of the speaker, which is a performative process that is centered around the speaker.

Typography with Sound
interactive installation, website, microphone, audio interface, music stand, printed papers

Collaboration with
Studio DOHGAM (JI Kangil, KIM Namjoo), KIM JungHyun, LEE Seulki, Moving World (LIM Nari, PARK Dahyun, YOON Shinhye), PARK Sanghoon, The Great Commission (Zoe CHUN), and Wooklimsolhoon (KIM Daewook, KIM Yoolim, LEE Younghoon, OH Eunsol)
MOON Jungju
born in Seoul, South Korea / based in Seoul, South Korea

Moon Jungju is a graphic designer and developer. He studied visual design at Seoul National University of Science and Technology and the University of Seoul Graduate School of Design. He presents his work in the field of audiovisual communication, using graphic design and programming languages as his main tools. He enjoys connecting his interests to an organized output and is energized by seeing and hearing cute things.

35 PARK Chulhee

“It is painful to watch a movie without sound. (...) It is not so often that one has the opportunity to re-edit a completed movie and have it interpreted by a third party. I felt a bit guilty during the process and still don’t think I did a good work. With that in mind, I took the title from a quote by Japanese voice actor Yamadera Koichi about ‘dubbing’ in an interview.”

It's hard to make it better, but it's easy to mess up is a stop-motion lettering of sound elements to the silent film There Is No Poverty at the End of Labor, directed by Lee Gyuseol, which is believed to have been produced in the 1920s. Park Chulhee uses modular typography to act as a kind of “typographic interpreter,” in the same way that a film interpreter at a screening of a silent movie would bring the movie to life with dialog and gestures.

It's hard to make it better, but it's easy to mess up
single-channel video, black and white, silent, 12 min. 50 sec.
Project Cooperation
This work was conceived as a joint project between Typojanchi 2023 and the Korean Film Archive.
PARK Chulhee
born in Gwangju, Jeollanam-do, South Korea / based in Seoul, South Korea

Park Chulhee is a graphic designer who runs Sunny Studio in Seoul. He likes doing lettering works in Korean.

36 OKOK Services

Distance of Parallels reinterprets The Street of Sun (1952), one of the few films produced during the Korean War. Theater-going was a popular entertainment when the war was at a stalemate at the 38th parallel. This implies that life goes on even during a war and that refugees who lost everything still pursue small entertainment in the new city that they found themselves in.

Taking a point of departure from above, Distance of Parallels pays attention to the lives of refugees that persist in everyday life despite the brutality of the war. Firstly, the work deconstructs the frames of the film into a 3D space, then positions the original frames at the forefront and newspaper advertisements and film posters (through which we can glimpse at the everyday lives during the war) at the back. Such overlapping is an attempt to blur the border between film and life. The second overlapping is the overlapping of clips from the film. The clips do not follow any chronological order. This overlapping is an attempt to deconstruct temporalities. Clips, rotating without any specific order, demonstrate that the past and the future both ebb and flow in our present.

Distance of Parallels
single-channel video, black and white, silent, 1 min. 57 sec.

Collaboration with
Alex Heeyeon KIL
Project Cooperation
This work was conceived as a joint project between Typojanchi 2023 and the Korean Film Archive.
OKOK Services
Faris KASSIM born in Singapore / based in Seoul, South Korea
My Kim BUI born in Brussels, Belgium / based in Amsterdam, Netherlands

OKOK Service is an independent studio based between Amsterdam and Seoul. The studio is run by Faris Kassim and My Kim Bui, covering all areas of digital content. The studio works primarily with brands, cultural organizations, and individuals, showcasing exploratory work in interaction design and development, creative coding, 3D design, and generative branding solutions.

37 PARK Goeun

The Garden of Singing and Dancing is based on Love with an Alien (1957), the first joint film between South Korea and Hong Kong. The soundtrack was lost, and only the video footage and script survived.

The name of the female lead in Love with an Alien is named Fang Yin (方音), coincidentally. The literal meaning of the name, when translated, is composed of Chinese characters that mean “corner or direction” and “sound.” As we listen to the dizzying movement of the sequence of letters on the screen in place of the missing sound, we can hear the familiar textures of sound through the gestures of the movie's protagonist.

The Garden of Singing and Dancing
Project Cooperation
This work was conceived as a joint project between Typojanchi 2023 and the Korean Film Archive.
PARK Goeun
born in Seongnam, South Korea / based in Seoul, South Korea

Park Goeun is a graphic designer and researcher interested in collecting stories of lost things in cities. She studied visual design at Seoul National University and holds a master’s degree in information design from Design Academy Eindhoven. She is interested in discovering new stories in the process of observing complex information data. She has written a monograph, Erased Korean Modern Architecture (2022), and participated in exhibitions such as Walking, Wandering (Asia Cultural Center, Gwangju, 2023) and Open Graphic Design (ORGD) 2022 (wrm space, Seoul, 2022).

38 GANG Moonsick

Thanks to addresses how the visuals a designer works with relate to sound, how they replace it, and what other imaginings are possible. In this work, Gang examines how cinematic images arise from the experience of reading and re-imagining sounds from that textualized information.

Thanks to
single-channel video, color, silent, 5 min. 7 sec.

Collaboration with
YI Sangwoo (text), LEE Minhyung (video), KIM Jongmoon (sign language), and KIM Hyekyoung (movements)
GANG Moonsick
born in Seoul, South Korea / based in Seoul, South Korea

Gang Moonsick studied graphic design at Kaywon University of Art and Design, Gerrit Rietveld Academie, and Yale University and has been living and working in Korea since 2018. As a graphic designer, he responds to unexpected situations, various variables, and trivial traces that can be easily overlooked and searches for silent paths that can create new potentials.

39 GRAPHIC #50

GRAPHIC, an independent magazine published by Propaganda, collaborated with the Typojanchi 2023 organizing team to produce its 50th issue as a special issue on the theme of typography and sound. GRAPHIC #50 reorganizes the artists and works that influenced the curatorial team, as well as the articles and books that helped them, although they were not represented in the exhibition while organizing Typojanchi Saisai 2022-2023: Materialized Sound, Embodied Text and staging Typojanchi 2023: Open Quotation Marks, Close Quotation Marks. The magazine operates as a bibliography of Typojanchi 2023, reorganizing the content into ten texts and more than 200 pages of images, allowing readers and visitors to experience the theme of typography and sound from a different perspective than the exhibition’s catalog.

offset print, perfect binding, 30 × 23 cm, 264 pages
Project Cooperation
This work was conceived as a joint project between Typojanchi 2023 and a quarterly magazine, GRAPHIC.
founded in January 2007 / published in Seoul, Korea

GRAPHIC (ISSN 1975-7905) aims to explore emerging trends in graphic design that go beyond the mainstream and provide insights into related phenomena. Each edition takes an in-depth approach by focusing on a single theme, preserving editorial independence, and producing innovative articles without dependence on external funding. It is distributed in Korea, Europe, America, Asia, and other regions.